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三:Planning and Managing the Project

发布时间:2024/5/15 编程问答 0 豆豆
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文章目录

  • 一、Tracking progress
    • 1.What is a project schedule, an activity, and a milestone
    • 2.Work breakdown and activity graphs
    • 3.Estimating completion
      • (1)CPM (Critical Path Method) (*)
      • (2)Slack time for an activity
    • 4.Tools to track progress
  • 二、Project personnel
    • 1.Staff roles and characteristics
      • (1)Communication
    • 2.Work styles
    • 3.Project organization
      • (1)Depend on three factors
      • (2)Chief programmer team
      • (3)Egoless approach无私方法
  • 三、Effort estimation
  • 四、Risk management activities
    • 1.What is a risk?
    • 2.Steps in risk management
      • Risk exposure calculation
    • 3.How to reduce risk?


一、Tracking progress

1.What is a project schedule, an activity, and a milestone

2.Work breakdown and activity graphs

4 parameters to describe an activity: precursor, duration, due date, and endpoint
Activity graph

3.Estimating completion

(1)CPM (Critical Path Method) (*)

(2)Slack time for an activity

都以Activity(前者-后者)的前者为基准。

  • Critical path关键路线 :
    从开始到结束得所有路径中,所用时间最长的为关键路径(有可能有多条相同的)。

  • 最早开始时间(以前者为基准):
    在关键路径上,从开始到该任务的最早执行的时间
    第一个结点(开始结点)的最早执行的时间是1,不是0.
    其他结点的最早开始时间为:[从开始结点到Activity前者结点经过的最长的时间总长]+1

  • 最晚开始时间(以前者为基准):
    关键路径的总时间-反向得出该任务的时间
    关键路径上的Activity(前者、后者都在)的最晚开始时间是同最早开始时间。
    其他结点的最晚开始时间为:关键路线的总时长 - [从结束结点到Activity前者结点经过的最长的时间总长]+1

  • Slack time松弛时间:
    第一种求法:最晚开始时间-最早开始时间
    第二种求法:关键路径的总时间-包含该任务的关键路径花的时间
    关键路径上的Activity(前者、后者都在)的Slack time为0.

  • Precursors前驱结点:
    是Activity(前者-后者)中前者的前驱结点。

【应用题1】


比如:
2-3的最早开始时间为3+1=4,最晚开始时间为=15-(2+2+3)+1=9
2-4的最早开始时间为3+1=4,最晚开始时间为=15-(5+2+3)+1=6
3-7的最早开始时间为2+3+1=6,最晚开始时间为=15-(2+3)+1=11
5-7的最早开始时间为3+3+1=7,最晚开始时间为=15-(3+6)+1=7

【应用题2】


F-H的最早时间和C-F、D-F的最晚时间中的经过时间都是取得经过的最长时间

4.Tools to track progress

Gantt chart

二、Project personnel

1.Staff roles and characteristics

(1)Communication

If there is n worker in project, then there are n(n-1)/2 pairs of communication.

【选择题】

  • There are ( 15 )communications paths in a team with 6 members.

2.Work styles

  • Extroverts(外向): tell their thoughts
  • Introverts(内向): ask for suggestions
  • Intuitives(直觉): base decisions on feelings
  • Rationals(理智): base decisions on facts, options
    【选择题】
  • Shane is an efficient leader(外向的).He knows what he wants and relies on his own experiences and logic to make decisions.(依据逻辑)He does not feel the need for extensive information before making a decision.He is capable of making fast decisions.Shane’s work style would be described best as ( Rational extrover

3.Project organization

(1)Depend on three factors

  • backgrounds and work styles of team members
  • number of people on team
  • management styles of customers and developers

(2)Chief programmer team

【选择题】

  • A chief programmer team is not suited for ( adopting a new programming language )projects.

(3)Egoless approach无私方法

题:
【选择题】

  • An egoless approach is suited for adopting a new programming language.(采取新的编程语言)

三、Effort estimation

Can not produce accurate estimates
Effort estimation techniques – expert judgment, algorithmic methods, machine-learning ethods

四、Risk management activities

1.What is a risk?

2.Steps in risk management


分为Risk assessment风险评估和Risk control风险控制:

  • Risk assessment风险评估:
    • Risk identification风险定义
    • Risk analysis风险分析
    • Risk prioritization风险优先次序
  • Risk control风险控制:
    • Risk reduction风险减少
    • Risk management planning风险管理计划
    • Risk resolution风险解决
      【选择题】
  • Risk management planning)is not an activity of risk assessment.

Risk exposure calculation

Risk exposure(成本) = (risk probability) x (risk impact)
【应用题1】




【应用题2】



3.How to reduce risk?

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