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Kubernetes: kube-apiserver 之认证

发布时间:2023/11/16 windows 5 coder
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kubernetes:kube-apiserver 系列文章:

  • Kubernetes:kube-apiserver 之 scheme(一)
  • Kubernetes:kube-apiserver 之 scheme(二)
  • Kubernetes:kube-apiserver 之启动流程(一)
  • Kubernetes:kube-apiserver 之启动流程(二)
  • Kubernetes:kube-apiserver 和 etcd 的交互

0. 前言

kube-apiserver 不仅负责 RESTful API 路由的建立,也负责请求的认证,授权和准入。如下图所示:

本篇文章将介绍 kube-apiserver 的认证机制。

1. 认证 Authentication

认证是对请求的认证,确认请求是否具有访问 Kubernetes 集群的权限。在 kube-apiserver 中,通过 handler 处理请求的认证,所有请求都将通过认证 handler 进行认证。可以把它理解成 Gin 框架的中间件。

1.1 认证 handler

首先,从认证 handler 的创建过程入手。

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/server/config.go
// 进入 GenericAPIServer 的创建函数 New
func (c completedConfig) New(name string, delegationTarget DelegationTarget) (*GenericAPIServer, error) {
	handlerChainBuilder := func(handler http.Handler) http.Handler {
		return c.BuildHandlerChainFunc(handler, c.Config)
	}


	apiServerHandler := NewAPIServerHandler(name, c.Serializer, handlerChainBuilder, delegationTarget.UnprotectedHandler())
    ...
}

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/server/config.go
func NewAPIServerHandler(name string, s runtime.NegotiatedSerializer, handlerChainBuilder HandlerChainBuilderFn, notFoundHandler http.Handler) *APIServerHandler {
	...

	director := director{
		name:               name,
		goRestfulContainer: gorestfulContainer,
		nonGoRestfulMux:    nonGoRestfulMux,
	}

	return &APIServerHandler{
        // 创建 FullHandlerChain
		FullHandlerChain:   handlerChainBuilder(director),
		GoRestfulContainer: gorestfulContainer,
		NonGoRestfulMux:    nonGoRestfulMux,
		Director:           director,
	}
}

这里 FullHandlerChain 内装有认证 handler。继续看哪里定义 handlerChainBuilder 函数的。

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/server/config.go
func NewConfig(codecs serializer.CodecFactory) *Config {
	return &Config{
        ...
		BuildHandlerChainFunc:          DefaultBuildHandlerChain,
    }
}

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/server/config.go
func DefaultBuildHandlerChain(apiHandler http.Handler, c *Config) http.Handler {
    handler = genericapifilters.WithAuthentication(handler, c.Authentication.Authenticator, failedHandler, c.Authentication.APIAudiences, c.Authentication.RequestHeaderConfig)
    return handler
}

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/endpoints/filters/authentication.go
func WithAuthentication(handler http.Handler, auth authenticator.Request, failed http.Handler, apiAuds authenticator.Audiences, requestHeaderConfig *authenticatorfactory.RequestHeaderConfig) http.Handler {
	return withAuthentication(handler, auth, failed, apiAuds, requestHeaderConfig, recordAuthenticationMetrics)
}

在创建配置 Config 时,将 DefaultBuildHandlerChain 赋值给 BuildHandlerChainFuncDefaultBuildHandlerChain 内的 genericapifilters.WithAuthentication 创建了认证 handler

接着往下走,进入 genericapifilters.WithAuthentication

func withAuthentication(handler http.Handler, auth authenticator.Request, failed http.Handler, apiAuds authenticator.Audiences, requestHeaderConfig *authenticatorfactory.RequestHeaderConfig, metrics authenticationRecordMetricsFunc) http.Handler {
	return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
		resp, ok, err := auth.AuthenticateRequest(req)

		// authorization header is not required anymore in case of a successful authentication.
		req.Header.Del("Authorization")

		req = req.WithContext(genericapirequest.WithUser(req.Context(), resp.User))
		handler.ServeHTTP(w, req)
	})
}

type Request interface {
	AuthenticateRequest(req *http.Request) (*Response, bool, error)
}

可以看到,认证 handler 中通过 auth.AuthenticateRequest(req)RESTful API 请求进行认证。这里 auth 是一个实现 Request 接口的实例。

那么,auth 实例是在哪里创建的呢,调用的 AuthenticateRequest 方法具体做的是什么呢?带着这个问题我们看下一节认证实例。

1.2 认证实例

通过层层回溯找到调用点。

handler = genericapifilters.WithAuthentication(handler, c.Authentication.Authenticator, failedHandler, c.Authentication.APIAudiences, c.Authentication.RequestHeaderConfig)

这里 c.Authentication.Authenticator 即为 auth 的实例。我们看 c.Authentication.Authenticator 是在哪里创建的。

# kubernetes/pkg/controlplane/apiserver/config.go
func BuildGenericConfig(
	s controlplaneapiserver.CompletedOptions,
	schemes []*runtime.Scheme,
	getOpenAPIDefinitions func(ref openapicommon.ReferenceCallback) map[string]openapicommon.OpenAPIDefinition,
) (
	genericConfig *genericapiserver.Config,
	versionedInformers clientgoinformers.SharedInformerFactory,
	storageFactory *serverstorage.DefaultStorageFactory,

	lastErr error,
) {
    // Authentication.ApplyTo requires already applied OpenAPIConfig and EgressSelector if present
	if lastErr = s.Authentication.ApplyTo(&genericConfig.Authentication, genericConfig.SecureServing, genericConfig.EgressSelector, genericConfig.OpenAPIConfig, genericConfig.OpenAPIV3Config, clientgoExternalClient, versionedInformers); lastErr != nil {
		return
	}
}

# kubernetes/pkg/kubeapiserver/options/authentication.go
func (o *BuiltInAuthenticationOptions) ApplyTo(authInfo *genericapiserver.AuthenticationInfo, secureServing *genericapiserver.SecureServingInfo, egressSelector *egressselector.EgressSelector, openAPIConfig *openapicommon.Config, openAPIV3Config *openapicommon.Config, extclient kubernetes.Interface, versionedInformer informers.SharedInformerFactory) error {
	authenticatorConfig, err := o.ToAuthenticationConfig()
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

    ...

	authInfo.Authenticator, openAPIConfig.SecurityDefinitions, err = authenticatorConfig.New()
}

c.Authentication.Authenticator 实际是 authenticatorConfig.New() 创建的 authInfo.Authenticator 认证器。进入 authenticatorConfig.New() 看创建认证器过程。

# kubernetes/pkg/controlplane/apiserver/config.go
func (config Config) New() (authenticator.Request, *spec.SecurityDefinitions, error) {
	var authenticators []authenticator.Request
	var tokenAuthenticators []authenticator.Token
	securityDefinitions := spec.SecurityDefinitions{}

	// front-proxy, BasicAuth methods, local first, then remote
	// Add the front proxy authenticator if requested
	if config.RequestHeaderConfig != nil {
		requestHeaderAuthenticator := headerrequest.NewDynamicVerifyOptionsSecure(
			config.RequestHeaderConfig.CAContentProvider.VerifyOptions,
			config.RequestHeaderConfig.AllowedClientNames,
			config.RequestHeaderConfig.UsernameHeaders,
			config.RequestHeaderConfig.GroupHeaders,
			config.RequestHeaderConfig.ExtraHeaderPrefixes,
		)
		authenticators = append(authenticators, authenticator.WrapAudienceAgnosticRequest(config.APIAudiences, requestHeaderAuthenticator))
	}

	// X509 methods
	if config.ClientCAContentProvider != nil {
		certAuth := x509.NewDynamic(config.ClientCAContentProvider.VerifyOptions, x509.CommonNameUserConversion)
		authenticators = append(authenticators, certAuth)
	}

    ...

    authenticator := union.New(authenticators...)
	authenticator = group.NewAuthenticatedGroupAdder(authenticator)
    return authenticator, &securityDefinitions, nil
}

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/authentication/request/union/union.go
func New(authRequestHandlers ...authenticator.Request) authenticator.Request {
	if len(authRequestHandlers) == 1 {
		return authRequestHandlers[0]
	}
	return &unionAuthRequestHandler{Handlers: authRequestHandlers, FailOnError: false}
}

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/authentication/group/authenticated_group_adder.go
func NewAuthenticatedGroupAdder(auth authenticator.Request) authenticator.Request {
	return &AuthenticatedGroupAdder{auth}
}

可以看到,认证器是一系列认证器的组合。每个认证器包括组合的认证器都实现了 authenticator.Request 接口的 AuthenticateRequest 方法。

回头看在 handler 中定义的 auth.AuthenticateRequest(req) 方法,实际执行的是 authenticator.AuthenticateRequest(req)

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/authentication/group/authenticated_group_adder.go
func (g *AuthenticatedGroupAdder) AuthenticateRequest(req *http.Request) (*authenticator.Response, bool, error) {
	r, ok, err := g.Authenticator.AuthenticateRequest(req)
	if err != nil || !ok {
		return nil, ok, err
	}
}

# kubernetes/vendor/k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/authentication/request/union/union.go
func (authHandler *unionAuthRequestHandler) AuthenticateRequest(req *http.Request) (*authenticator.Response, bool, error) {
	var errlist []error
	for _, currAuthRequestHandler := range authHandler.Handlers {
		resp, ok, err := currAuthRequestHandler.AuthenticateRequest(req)
		if err != nil {
			if authHandler.FailOnError {
				return resp, ok, err
			}
			errlist = append(errlist, err)
			continue
		}

		if ok {
			return resp, ok, err
		}
	}

	return nil, false, utilerrors.NewAggregate(errlist)
}

通过层层调用,最终执行到 unionAuthRequestHandler.AuthenticateRequest。该方法中循环执行各个认证器的 AuthenticateRequest 方法,直到认证成功。

各认证器的认证方式不同,这里就不过多介绍了,具体涉及到各种认证方式的时候可详细看相应认证器的 AuthenticateRequest 方法。

2. 总结

通过本篇文章介绍了 kube-apiserver 中的 Authentication 认证流程,下一篇将继续介绍 kube-apiserverAuthorization 授权流程。


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